Whole genome sequencing of three native cattle breeds from northernmost cattle farming regions (2024)

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Finnsheep is one of the most prolific sheep breeds in the world. We sequenced RNA-Seq libraries from the ovaries of Finnsheep ewes collected during out of season breeding period at about 30X sequence coverage. A total of 86966348 and 105587994 reads from two samples were mapped against latest available ovine reference genome (Oarv3.1). The transcriptome assembly revealed 14870 known ovine genes, including the 15 candidate genes for fertility and out-of-season breeding. In this study we successfully used our bioinformatics pipeline to assemble the first ovarian transcriptome of Finnsheep.

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Sheep (Ovis aries) is one of the most economically, culturally, and socially important domestic animals. They are reared primarily for meat, milk, wool, and fur production. Sheep were reared using natural selection for a long period of time to offer these traits. In fact, this production system has been slowing the productivity and production potential of the sheep. To improve production efficiency and productivity of this animal through genetic improvement technologies, understanding the genetic background of traits such as body growth, weight, carcass quality, fat percent, fertility, milk yield, wool quality, horn type, and coat color is essential. With the development and utilization of animal genotyping technologies and gene identification methods, many functional genes and genetic variants associated with economically important phenotypic traits have been identified and annotated. This is useful and presented an opportunity to increase the pace of animal genetic gain. Quantitat...

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Domestic sheep and their wild relatives harbor substantial genetic variants that can form the backbone of molecular breeding, but their genome landscapes remain understudied. Here, we present a comprehensive genome resource for wild ovine species, landraces and improved breeds of domestic sheep, comprising high-coverage (∼16.10×) whole-genomes of 810 samples from 7 wild species and 158 diverse domestic populations. We detected, in total, ∼121.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), ∼61 million of which are novel. Some display significant (P < 0.001) differences in frequency between wild and domestic species, or are private to continent-wide or individual sheep populations. Retained or introgressed wild gene variants in domestic populations have contributed to local adaptation, such as the variation in the HBB associated with plateau adaptation. We identified novel and previously reported targets of selection on morphological and agronomic traits such as stature, horn, t...

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The highly prolific breeds of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are globally valuable genetic resources for sheep industry. Genetic, nutritional and other environmental factors affect prolificacy traits in sheep. To improve our knowledge of the sheep prolificacy traits, we conducted mRNA-miRNA integrated profiling of ovarian tissues from two pure breeds with large (Finnsheep) vs. small (Texel) litter sizes and their F1 crosses, half of which were fed a flushing diet. Among the samples, 16,402 genes (60.6% known ovine genes) were expressed, 79 novel miRNAs were found, and a cluster of miRNAs on chromosome 18 was detected. The majority of the differentially expressed genes between breeds were upregulated in the Texel with low prolificacy, owing to the flushing diet effect, whereas a similar pattern was not detected in the Finnsheep. F1 ewes responded similarly to Finnsheep rather than displaying a performance intermediate between the two pure breeds. The identification and characterization ...

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The Canadian Cattle Genome Project is a large-scale international project that aims to develop genomics-based tools to enhance the efficiency and sustainability of beef and dairy production. Obtaining DNA sequence information is an important part of achieving this goal as it facilitates efforts to associate specific DNA differences with phenotypic variation. These associations can be used to guide breeding decisions and provide valuable insight into the molecular basis of traits. We describe a dataset of 379 whole-genome sequences, taken primarily from key historic Bos taurus animals, along with the analyses that were performed to assess data quality. The sequenced animals represent ten populations relevant to beef or dairy production. Animal information (name, breed, population), sequence data metrics (mapping rate, depth, concordance), and sequence repository identifiers (NCBI BioProject and BioSample IDs) are provided to enable others to access and exploit this sequence informati...

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Journal of Animal Science

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Transcriptome Profile Analysis of Mammary Gland Tissue from Two Breeds of Lactating Sheep

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The mammary gland is a crucial tissue for milk synthesis and plays a critical role in the feeding and growth of mammalian offspring. The aim of this study was to use RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology to provide a transcriptome profile of the ovine mammary gland at the peak of lactation. Small-Tailed Han (STH) sheep (n = 9) and Gansu Alpine Merino (GAM) sheep (n = 9), breeds with phenotypic differences in milk production traits, were selected for the RNA-Seq analysis. This revealed 74 genes that were more highly expressed in the STHs than in the GAMs. Similarly, 143 genes that were expressed at lower levels in the STHs than in the GAMs, were identified. Gene ontogeny (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses revealed that these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were associated with binding and catalytic activities, hematopoietic cell lineages, oxytocin signaling pathway and neuroactive ligand–receptor interaction. This is the first study of the...

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Whole genome sequencing of three native cattle breeds from northernmost cattle farming regions (2024)
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